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Introductions and conclusions are important components of any essay. They work to book-end the argument made in the body paragraphs by first explaining.

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Email an article. You have chosen to share the following article: How elderberries can help you fight the flu To proceed, simply complete the form below, and a link to the article will be sent by email on your behalf. Send securely. Message sent successfully The details of this article have been emailed on your behalf. Medical News Today : Your source for health news since Over , articles spanning hundreds of medical topics, plus our Knowledge Center. Heart Disease Scientists may be getting closer to creating a universal flu vaccine A phase I clinical trial may represent the first step toward finding a universal vaccine that could prevent several influenza viruses.

Atrial fibrillation: Daily alcoholic drink riskier than binge drinking New research finds that frequent low alcohol consumption, such as one daily drink, has a higher risk of atrial fibrillation than infrequent binge drinking. Monkeys demonstrate more cognitive flexibility than humans In a recent study, researchers conclude that in certain tasks, capuchin and rhesus monkeys are more cognitively flexible than humans.

Some keto diets may exacerbate skin inflammation A study in mouse models with psoriasis-like skin inflammation suggests that ketogenic diets with a very high fat content may exacerbate skin problems. Parkinson's: New treatment approach shows promise in brain cells A new study suggests an innovative strategy for tackling an enzyme that is typically affected in Parkinson's disease. The findings show promise in neurons. Scientists liken mitochondria to Tesla battery packs Using high resolution microscopy, scientists show that mitochondria comprise many bioelectric units rather than a single one, as they previously thought.

Could a unique new fungus offer an opioid alternative? A new discovery in the estuarine waters of Tasmania may lead to the development of a safe and effective alternative to opioids, scientists reveal. Why raw dog food could be harmful for pets and owners alike Researchers have found that some raw dog food products harbor harmful bacteria that could cause infections both in dogs and their human family members.

Estrogen exposure may stave off cognitive decline in women New research suggests that estrogen exposure and hormone replacement therapy can help maintain cognitive health in postmenopausal women. MCI: Should memory tests score males and females differently? A new study finds that testing memory with sex-specific scores could lead to more females and fewer males receiving a mild cognitive impairment diagnosis.

Does the rotavirus vaccine prevent type 1 diabetes? Scientists present a link between rotavirus infection and type 1 diabetes and suggest vaccination as a method to prevent the condition. Mindfulness could boost opioid use disorder treatment A new study offers evidence that mindfulness could boost the effectiveness of traditional therapy for opioid use disorder, improving control over cravings.


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  • Dry eye disease: New treatment on the horizon Current treatments for dry eye disease do not work for everyone. A preliminary investigation of new antibody based eye drops produces encouraging results. Dementia: Brain mapping method may predict progression New research shows how frontotemporal dementia progresses and enables scientists to accurately predict how the condition will spread.

    Drinks, not food, with added sugar promote weight gain Research finds that adding sucrose to drinks increases calorie intake and weight gain in mice, but adding the same amount in solid form to food does not. Gut bacteria may counter the harmful effects of processed foods A new mouse study identifies a specific bacterium that lives in our gut and breaks down harmful chemicals from processed foods into harmless byproducts. In the spotlight Letter from the Editor: It's raining cats and dogs.

    The science behind lucid dreaming. This special feature explores the science behind lucid dreaming, an experience in which a person realizes they are dreaming as they continue to dream. How do superstitions affect our psychology and well-being? This Friday the 13th, we take a look at the psychological mechanisms of superstitions and their effect on mental health and well-being. Curiosities of medical history: Trepanation. Similarly, the group of academics and researchers contained The only grouping in which public health predominated was professional organizations and associations with This is consistent with the fact that this group contained organizations largely dealing with public health issues, such as the National Heart Foundation.

    One of the major aims of the study was to test the perception that public health issues were presented in a more negative fashion than were medical model issues. Items were assessed for tone as positive or negative using categories modified from those developed in the United States for analysing reported media studies Larson, The topic of the item is presented in a benevolent and good light.

    Oklahoma Health News, Medical Studies, Research & Information | NewsOK

    Where the item neither indicates, implies, accuses or states that the reported health issue was good, bad, helpful or harmful to society or to individuals, nor does it redeem, promote or destroy them in any way. Items which are well balanced in presenting alternative opinions are also included in this category. Where the item suggests, implies or states that the health issue reported was harmful, fatal, or dangerous to individuals or to society.

    In these items the reader receives a message of caution or disdain towards the issue reported, or a feeling that the content, e.

    The press does not simply provide neutral information. It presents largely manufactured and often subjective accounts of reality through emphasis, prominence, omission and selection Schwartz, To reflect more simply any potential bias on the part of the coder, neutral items were combined with positive ones.

    Print media coverage of primary healthcare and related research evidence in South Africa

    This resulted in only those articles assessed as truly negative being coded in that category. The assessments were validated in an initial trial sample utilizing two non-health educators, two health science academics, a media studies academic, a health services administrator and an academic sociologist. Codings in each case were almost identical to those of the principal author. The ratio of positive to negative reporting across all items was approximately 2 : 1 with Proportionally A number of measures were generally not statistically significant but are nevertheless of interest and worthy of analysis in a larger study.

    Measures of prominence assess how effectively each item may attract the attention of readers and the degree of information potentially imparted. The day of the week on which items appear was assessed as an indicator for potential targeting of future health information programs, but no particular pattern was evident. The pages rated by The [Brisbane] Courier Mail as being of primary pp. Public health was less represented The upper left and right quadrants of the page where the eye naturally falls contained These were assessed for size with public health being marginally better represented in medium and larger headlines than was the medical model.

    The length of text, in standard newspaper column centimetres, was used as a measure of the importance and prominence given to a particular news item. No particular pattern was evident. These accompanied approximately one-third of all items with similar proportions for medical model and public health items. The size of the photograph was not significant.

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    Orientation of reporting gave an indication of the direction of the reporting, credibility of those reporting and style in which the item was presented. The following subgroups were assessed. The reporter was the opinion maker in Of the issue-oriented items, This was reversed in person-oriented articles with This assessed the relative importance of each item by size. The briefest and hence potentially least important items, columns, accounted for Articles accounted for These sections of newspapers are generally regarded as the interactive public and forum pages and accounted for only 9.

    This gives a flavour for the style of item reported with new items predominating at The remainder being event announcement, new, recurring or mixed new and recurring items. The definitions used in this study of both the medical model and of public health may be criticized as artificial. However, they are based on a thorough review of the literature and represent the best fit in separating health into two basic components.

    It is acknowledged that public health does contain elements of the medical model such as in the field of epidemiology, which is a cornerstone of traditional public health disease surveillance. Conversely, treatment areas included in the medical model may include elements of public health such as in analysis of vector-transmitted diseases as part of treatment programs.

    Health promotion activities may be a feature of both models but for simplicity have been included as part of public health. No attempt was made to evaluate the accuracy of factual information presented. A task of such magnitude was considered to be beyond the scope and time frame of the study Craik, , personal communication; Dawson, , personal communication; Granato, , personal communication.

    Similarly, no attempt was made to interview journalists or editors in any depth to assess health reporting from their perspective given the nature of a brief case study. Contact was made with editorial staff regarding emphasis in the placement of items. It is acknowledged there may be some bias in the selection of health items reported in The [Brisbane] Courier Mail given that it is a major daily newspaper clearly aimed at a mass audience and therefore items are selected for inclusion which will have a popular appeal and increase newspaper sales.

    However, such biases do not invalidate this study which utilized The [Brisbane] Courier Mail as a case study to assess if differences existed between the medical model and public health reporting. Extensive literature reviews revealed little published material on differences in health care reporting between the public health and the medical model. The only similar study focused on general health reporting but made no distinction between public health and the medical model Burns and Robinson, No similar analytical tool was identified in the literature. The relative lack of literature to support assertions made is accepted and strengthens this case study as a piece of original work.

    Although a limited study, the results suggest that there are significant differences in the manner in which public health and medical model issues were reported, as seen in The [Brisbane] Courier Mail. Newsworthiness is a significant factor in determining what is reported both with respect to who determines what is newsworthy and how the news is used White, Textbooks on journalism also argue that there is little agreement on defining what is news Burns and Robinson, Four categories: frequency, content, stakeholders and tone contained results which were statistically significant and may be of importance for future development of public health reporting in the print media on the basis of this study.

    The numerical predominance of medical model issues over public health by 2 to 1 supported the initial hypothesis that public health was given less prominence than the medical model. The general population can readily identify with the latter, which includes tangible identifiable physical entities, including hospitals and technological equipment. Public health being more about programs and issues, may be less easily conceptualized by the average person.

    The lower frequency in reporting of public health was paralleled by health expenditure in Queensland. The content of each item was one of the most strongly polarized and significant categories. Of all aspects of the reporting of health care items considered in this study, the distribution of the subject nature of the content was the single most distinguishing feature between the two components of health care.

    Predictably the medical model was clearly dominant in the majority of all categories, particularly those dealing with more traditionally medical model issues such as treatment, rehabilitation, facilities, technology and research. Conversely, in the traditional public health oriented groups of gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status, health promotion and illness prevention, public health was the clearly dominant theme.