Those two airplane disappearances were frequently cited as the Bermuda Triangle legend grew during the s and s. Few of those stories included telling details. All of the crewmen of Flight 19 were in training, for example, except for their patrol leader, who had tried to withdraw from his flight duty that day because he was feeling ill. After his compass malfunctioned soon into the flight, the flight leader decided to navigate by land-marks below on the islands of the Florida Keys , with which he was familiar.
Visibility became a problem because of a sudden storm, and the leader became disoriented. Flight 19 was still in radio contact with the Fort Lauderdale air base, but after some mechanical difficulties they failed to switch to an emergency frequency. Radio recordings indicate that some of the crew believed they were heading out over the Atlantic Ocean , instead of the Gulf of Mexico as their leader reported. A search plane took off and was claimed to have disappeared into the Bermuda Triangle with Flight The plane actually blew up 23 seconds after takeoff.
Wreckage from Flight 19 has never been recovered. Other aircraft that have disappeared in the area include a DC-3 carrying 27 passengers in and a C Globemaster with 53 passengers in Among the ships often listed among the mysteriously disappeared are the Mary Celeste , the Marine tankership Sulphur Queen with 39 men aboard , and the nuclear-powered submarine Scorpion with a crew of 99 The Mary Celeste entered the list of supposed Bermuda Triangle mysteries many decades after its odd tragedy.
The ship set sail from New York to Genoa , Italy, but was found sailing unmanned some miles off course, off the coast of Africa. Personal articles of the crew were found and food storage areas showed no sign of upheaval. A tattered sail and a missing lifeboat suggested the boat had encountered a storm, but the ship's log, in which information was recorded as late as nine days before the ship was found, made no mention of any kind of catastrophe.
There is no evidence, however, that the Mary Celeste ever entered the area of the Bermuda Triangle. Still, the eerie, unanswered questions concerning its fate are often cited by those who attribute a malevolent force as being responsible for odd and tragic events of the triangle. Nevertheless, there are many documented disappearances that occurred within the triangle.
They include a four-engine Tudor IV air-plane lost in , with 31 aboard; an American freighter, the SS Sandra , which sunk without a trace; a British York transport plane, disappeared in , with 33 aboard; a U. Navy Lockheed Constellation airplane, vanished in with 42 aboard; a U. Navy seaplane, , with a crew of 10; a French freighter in ; and a German freighter, Anita, lost in with a crew of Theories about why so many air and water ships disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle involve strange magnetic fields, time warps, the lost continent of Atlantis , and alien abduction.
Other proposed explanations include physical forces unknown to science, a "hole in the sky," and an unusual chemical component in the region's seawater. Several books have suggested that an intelligent, technologically advanced race living in space or under the sea has been responsible for jamming equipment and leading ships and planes to disaster. Many books and articles play up mystery angles concerning vanished ships by depicting the disappearances as having occurred in calm weather and daylight. Such particulars of Flight 19 as an inexperienced crew, a faulty compass, a squadron leader who failed to follow instructions, and conditions of deteriorating weather and visibility are often not mentioned.
Larry Kusche, a librarian at Arizona State University, examined claims of mysterious disappearances and recorded evidence from each example.
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The results, published in The Bermuda Triangle — Mystery Solved, showed that many of the accidents happened during raging storms, or were later explained. The area known as the Bermuda Triangle is one of the two places on Earth where a magnetic compass does point towards true north, a phenomenon called compass variation. Navigators must compensate the amount of variation or the craft they are on will go off course. A region commonly called the "Devil's Sea" in the Pacific Ocean is the other area of compass variation.
The Gulf Stream that runs through the Bermuda Triangle area is swift and turbulent, and can quickly erase evidence of a disaster. The unpredictable Caribbean-Atlantic weather can suddenly change into thunderstorms or create waterspouts. Many short and intense storms build up quickly and dissipate quickly, undetected by satellite surveillance. The ocean floor has shoals around islands as well as some of the deepest marine trenches in the world.
The interaction of the strong currents over reefs promotes a constant flux and the development of new, uncharted navigational hazards. These factors can confuse even experienced sailors. A large number of pleasure boats travel the waters between Florida's coast and the Bahamas. The U. Coast Guard receives more than 8, distress calls per year, averaging more than 20 per day from that area, often from sailors who have run out of gas. The Bermuda Triangle claimed more than 1, lives during the twentieth century. That averages to about 10 per year, a figure similar to other areas of high water traffic or volatile natural conditions.
Scientific evaluations of the Bermuda Triangle have concluded that the number of disappearances in the region is not abnormal and that most of the disappearances have logical explanations. Paranormal associations with the Bermuda Triangle persist, however, in the popular imagination. Berlitz, Charles. The Bermuda Triangle. New York : Doubleday and Co.
Gaddis, Vincent H.
Invisible Horizons: True Mysteries of the Sea. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, Kusche, Lawrence D. The Bermuda Triangle Mystery — Solved. New York : Harper and Row, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
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October 18, Retrieved October 18, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
The Bermuda triangle
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. An area of the Western Atlantic between Bermuda and Florida where ships and planes are said to have vanished without a trace. During the late s, inspired largely by the volume by Vincent Gaddis, Invisible Horizons: True Mysteries of the Sea , a popular controversy erupted around claims that since over ships and planes and more than 1, people have disappeared in the Bermuda triangle. Kusche destroyed the mystery in a case-by-case discussion of the alleged disappearances.
Many had been solved, but popular writers were unaware of the relevant literature. Others happened outside of the triangle. Many had perfectly normal explanations. Since Kusche's book appeared, discussion of the Bermuda triangle has been confined to the fringe, though a few writers like Berlitz have tried to perpetuate interest. Among the more interesting theories put forward to solve the alleged mystery was proposed by Russian oceanographer Vladimir Azhazha. In articles published in reputable scientific journals in the U.
Infrasound is a frequency lower than 16 cycles per second. In an interview in Moscow published in the National Enquirer November 15, , Azhazha stated that he believed infrasonic waves in the Devil's Triangle are amplified by such factors as changes in water temperature and a powerful undersea river running in an opposite direction to ocean currents. Scientists at the Wave Propagation Laboratory of the U. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA confirm that the power of infrasonic vibrations does increase in a storm and that sound can be carried thousands of miles.
A NOAA research oceanographer stated that there are very sharp changes in the temperature of the water in the Devil's Triangle because of the Gulf Stream , and that different temperatures in water could cause differences in the intensity of infrasound, either increasing it or decreasing it. Is WebQuest will ask the students to do some research into the Bermuda Triangle.
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The Mystery of the Bermuda triangle
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